Monarcha

Publications

Forgiveness and Revenge

Gratitude

Psychological Consequences of Sexual Selection

Religion

 

New Publications

Gomes, C. M., & McCullough, M. E., (2015). The effects of implicit religious primes on dictator game Allocations: a preregistered replication experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. PDF

Nave G., Camerer C., McCullough M., “Does Oxytocin increase trust in humans? Critical review of research,” Perspectives on Psychological Science. PDF

McAuliffe, W.H.B. (in press). How did abduction get confused with inference to the best explanation? Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society: A Quarterly Journal in American Philosophy. PDF

Hone, L.S.E. & McCullough, M.E. (2015). Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain longitudinal sex differences in drinking game participation. Evolutionary Psychology, 13(2), 397-410. PDF

Hone, L.S.E., Lieberman, D., & Hurwitz, W. (2015). Sex difference in preferences for humor: A replication, modification, and extension. Evolutionary Psychology, 13(1), 167-181. PDF

Carter, E. C., Kofler, L. M., Forster, D. E., & McCullough, M. E. (2015). A Series of Meta- Analytic Tests of the Depletion Effect: Self-Control does not Seem to Rely on a Limited Resource. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(4):796-815. PDF

Carter, E. C., Pedersen, E. J., & McCullough, M. E. (2015). Reassessing Intertemporal Choice: Human decision-making is more optimal in a foraging task than in a self-control task. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:95. PDF

Carver, C. S., Johnson, S. L., McCullough, M. E., Forster, D. E., & Joormann, J. (2014). Adult personality correlates of childhood adversity. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01357. PDF

Hone, L. S. E., & McCullough, M. E. (in press). Does religious cognition really down-regulate hand grip endurance in men? A failure to replicate. Evolution and Human Behavior.PDF

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2014). Publication bias and the limited strength model of self-control: Has the evidence for ego depletion been overestimated? Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 823.PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Kelly, D. L. (2014). A trading scheme to reduce false positives. Nature, 508, 319. PDF

Pedersen, E. J., Forster, D. E., & McCullough, M. E. (in press). Life history, code of honor, and emotional responses to inequality in an economic game. Emotion. PDF

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2013). Is Ego Depletion too Incredible? Evidence for the Overestimation of the Depletion Effect. Behavioral and brain sciences, 36, 683-684. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Churchland, P. S., & Mendez, A. J. (2013). Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: Can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 1485-1492. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Pedersen, E. J. (2013). The evolution of generosity: How natural selection builds devices for benefit-delivery. Social Research, 80, 387-410. PDF

 

Forgiveness and Revenge

Articles and Chapters

McCullough, M. E., Pedersen, E. J., Tabak, B. A., & Carter, E. C. (2014). Conciliatory gestures promote forgiveness and reduce anger in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (30), 12111-12116. PDF

Pedersen, E.J., Kurzban, R., McCullough, M.E. (2013). Do humans really punish altruistically? A closer look. Proc. R. Soc. B. PDF

McCullough, M.E., Pedersen, E.J., Schroder, J.M., Tabak, B.A., Carver, C.S. (in press). Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans. Proc. R. Soc. B. PDF

Krasnow, M. M., Cosmides, L., Pedersen, E. J., Tooby, J. (2012). What are punishment and reputation for? PLoS ONE, 7(9): e45662. PDF

Burnette, J. L., McCullough, M. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., & Davis, D. E. (in press) Forgiveness results from integrating information about relationship value and exploitation risk. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. PDF

Tabak, B. A., & McCullough, M. E. (in press). Perceived transgressor agreeableness decreases cortisol response and increases forgiveness following recent interpersonal transgressions. Biological Psychology. PDF

Tabak, B. A., McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., Bono, G., & Berry, J. W. (in press). Conciliatory gestures facilitate forgiveness and feelings of friendship by making transgressors seem more agreeable. Journal of Personality. PDF

Tabak, B. A., McCullough, M. E., Szeto, A., Mendez, A. J., McCabe, P. M. (2011). Oxytocin indexes relational distress following interpersonal harms in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 115-122. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Luna, L. R., Berry, J. W., Tabak, B. A., & Bono, G. (2010). On the form and function of forgiving: Modeling the time-forgiveness relationship and testing the valuable relationships hypothesis. Emotion, 10, 358-376. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Kurzban, R., & Tabak, B. A. (2010). Evolved mechanisms for revenge and forgiveness. In P. R. Shaver and M. Mikulincer (eds.), Understanding and reducing aggression, violence, and their consequences (pp. 221-239). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., Tabak, B., & Witvliet, C. v. O. (2009). Forgiveness. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 427-435). New York: Oxford. PDF

Bono, G., McCullough, M. E., & Root, L. M. (2008). Forgiveness, feeling connected to others, and well-being: Two longitudinal studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 182-195. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Bono, G., & Root, L. M. (2007). Rumination, emotion, and forgiveness: Three longitudinal studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 490-505 . PDF

McCullough, M. E., Orsulak, P., Brandon, A., & Akers, L. (2007). Rumination, fear, and cortisol: An in vivo study of interpersonal transgressions. Health Psychology, 26, 126-132. PDF

Bono, G. & McCullough M. E. (2006). Positive responses to benefit and harm: Bringing forgiveness and gratitude into cognitive psychotherapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20, 147-158. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., & Cohen, A. D. (2006). Writing about the benefits of an interpersonal transgression facilitates forgiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 887-897. PDF

Tsang, J., McCullough, M. E., & Fincham, F. D. (2006). The longitudinal association between forgiveness and relationship closeness and commitment. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 448-472. PDF

Hoyt, W. T., Fincham, F. D., McCullough, M. E., Maio, G., & Davila, J. (2005). Responses to interpersonal transgressions in families: Forgivingness, forgivability, and relationship-specific effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 375-394. PDF

Tsang, J., McCullough, M. E., & Hoyt, W. T. (2005). Psychometric and rationalization accounts for the religion-forgiveness discrepancy. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 785-805. PDF

Bono, G., & McCullough, M. E. (2004). Religion, forgiveness, and adjustment in older adults. In K. W. Schaie, N. Krause & A. Booth (Eds.), Religious influences on health and well-being in the elderly  (pp. 163-186). New York: Springer. PDF

Exline, J. J., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Hill, P. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Forgiveness and justice: A research agenda for social and personality psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 337-348. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Mooney, C. N. (2003). Narcissists as “victims”: The role of narcissism in the perception of transgressions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 885-893. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Fincham, F. D., & Tsang, J. (2003). Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: The temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 540-557. PDF

Kendler, K., Liu, X., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 496-503. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Hoyt, W. T. (2002). Transgression-related motivational dispositions: Personality substrates of forgiveness and their links to the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1556-1573. PDF

McCullough, M. E. (2001). Forgiveness: Who does it and how do they do it? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 194-197. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Bellah, C. G., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Johnson, J. L. (2001). Vengefulness: Relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 601-610. PDF

McCullough, M. E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength: Theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 43-55. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (1999). Religion and the forgiving personality. Journal of Personality, 67, 1141-1164. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K. C., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade-Brown, S., & Hight, T. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships II: Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586-1603. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Rachal, K. C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 321-336. PDF. Note: Use of the five-item measure of forgiveness that we used in this study is not authorized, however. For more information please see Robert D. Enright (1999), "Correction to McCullough et al. (1997)", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, p. 218.

Measuring Forgiveness

Much of our work on forgiveness in the past few years has used a self-report measure called the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations (TRIM) Inventory. The version of the TRIM that is most widely in use right now is the TRIM-12. Here is a version of the TRIM-12 that includes scoring instructions, and technical and psychometric information. All credit to Dr. Susan Wade (now Susan Wade Brown) for developing these items as part of her doctoral dissertation at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, CA.

More recently, we have also been using an 18-item form of the TRIM that includes items for measuring positive, benevolent motivations. The items comprising the 18-item form appear in this article. Here are the items and scoring instructions.

Translations

Dutch adaptation/translation due to J. Karremans and P. A. M. Van Lange (2004). European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 207-227.
Hebrew translation due to Prof. Dr. Avi Besser, Department of Behavioral Sciences & Center for Research in Personality, Life Transitions, and Stressful Life Events, Sapir Academic College.
Polish translation of the TRIM-12, due to Marlena Kossakowska at the Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities.
German translation by the Personality and Assessment Group at the Dept. of Psychology, University of Zurich. Contact R. Proyer for details.
Spanish translation by Mónica Guzmán at the Universidad Catolica Católica del Norte of Chile.
Portuguese translation by Sonia Sousa.
Persian translation by Farshad Lavafpoor.

 

Gratitude

Articles and Chapters

McCullough, M. E. (2009). Commentary on "Do You Thank the Taxpayer for Your Bailout?" Harvard Business Review (June, 2009) PDF

McCullough, M. E., Kimeldorf, M. B., & Cohen, A. D. (2008). An adaptation for altruism? The social causes, social effects, and social evolution of gratitude. Current Directions in Psychological Science17, 281-284. PDF

Bono, G. & McCullough M. E. (2006). Positive responses to benefit and harm: Bringing forgiveness and gratitude into cognitive psychotherapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy20, 147-158. PDF

Polak, E., & McCullough, M. E. (2006). Is gratitude an alternative to materialism? Journal of Happiness Studies7, 343-360. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 295-309. PDF

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377-389. PDF

Kendler, K., Liu, X., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 496-503. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249-266. PDF

Measuring Gratitude

Much of our initial work on gratitude has been devoted to examining the disposition to experience gratitude as a relatively stable affective trait. To measure this affective trait, we have developed a short scale called the Gratitude Questionnaire, whose current incarnation consists of six short self-report items. The GQ-6 is available here for download in PDF format. This document includes some interpretative material that allows one to determine where a person's score on the GQ-6 falls relative to a large sample of adults who recently completed the measure. Finally, this short technical document describes the psychometric properties of the scale, including some of the most important evidence for its reliability and validity.

Translations

German translation by the Personality and Assessment Group at the Dept. of Psychology, University of Zurich. Contact R. Proyer for details. 
Chinese translation of the GQ-6 that Joyce Leong at the Chinese University of Hong Kong developed, including the back-translation.
Another Chinese translation of the GQ-6 that Lung Hung Chen and colleagues developed with a sample of Taiwanese undergraduates.
Hungarian translation, plus the English back-translation, from Magdolna Garay in the PPKE BTK Psychology Department.
Polish translation, due to Marlena Kossakowska at the Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities.
Farsi translation, due to Naser Aghababai at Department of Psychology, University of Tehran . 

Other information about measuring gratitude can be located in Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. E., & Tsang, J. (2003). The assessment of gratitude. In S. J. Lopez and C. R. Snyder (Eds.). Handbook of positive psychology assessment (pp. 327-341). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 

Psychological Consequences of Sexual Selection

Articles and Chapters

Hone, L. S. E., McCullough, M. E., & Carter, E. C. (in press). Drinking games as a venue for sexual competition. Evolutionary Psychology. PDF

Hone, L.S., McCullough, M.E., (2012). "2D:4D ratios predict hand grip strength (but not hand grip endurance) in men (but not in women)". Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 780-789. PDF

 

Religion

Religious Development Across the Life Span

In the past few years, we have begun work using the Terman Life Cycle Study of Children with High Ability to examine the causes and outcomes of spiritual development over the life span. Thanks to funding from the John Templeton Foundation and the Metanexus Institute, we have been able to carry on with our work to study religious development and health across the life course.

Carter, E. C., McCullough, M. E., & Carver, C. S. (2012). The mediating role of monitoring in the association of religion with self-control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 691-697. PDF

Carter, E. C., McCullough, M. E., Kim, J., Corrales, C., Blake, A. (in press). Religious People Discount the Future Less. Evolution and Human Behavior. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Friedman, H. S., Enders, C. K., & Martin, L. R. (in press). Does devoutness delay death? Psychological investment in religion and its association with mortality in the Terman sample. Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyPDF 

Kim, J., Nesselroade, J. R., & McCullough, M. E. (2009). Dynamic factor analysis of worldviews/ religious beliefs and well-being among older adults. Journal of Adult Development16, 87-100. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, self-control, and self-regulation: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological BulletinPDF

Hill, T. D., & McCullough, M. E. (2008).Religious involvement and the intoxication trajectories of low income urban women. Journal of Drug Issues43, 847-862. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Boker, S. M. (2007). Dynamical modeling for studying self-regulatory processes: An example from the study of religious development over the life span. In A. D. Ong and M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 380-394). New York: Oxford. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Polak, E. (2007). Change and stability during the third age: Longitudinal investigations of self-rated health and religiousness with the Terman sample. In J. B. James and P. Wink (Eds.), The crown of life: Dynamics of the early postretirement period (pp. 175-192). New York: Springer. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Enders, C. K., Brion, S. L., & Jain, A. R. (2005). The varieties of religious development in adulthood: A longitudinal investigation of religion and rational choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology89, 78-89. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Brion, S. (2003). Personality traits in adolescence as predictors of religiousness in early adulthood: Findings from the Terman Longitudinal Study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin29, 980-991. PDF

Religion, Spirituality and Health

Scholars in the social sciences since Emile Durkheim have posited that religious involvement may influence the health and well-being of populations. In most cases, researchers have assumed (and found good evidence to suggest) that religiousness may provide social support, prescribe and proscribe behaviors that have health-relevant effects, and help to provide meaning and coherence to people's lives. All of these factors (and perhaps others) have been thought to eventuate in happiness, better mental health, and longer life for the religiously adherent. These are some of the topics we study. 

McCullough, M. E., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2005). Religiousness and the trajectory of self-rated health across adulthood. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31, 560-573. PDF

Kendler, K., Liu, X., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 496-503.PDF

Smith, T. B., McCullough, M. E., & Poll, J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: Evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin129, 614-636. PDF

George, L. K., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & McCullough, M. E. (2000). Spirituality and health: What we know, what we need to know. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 102-116. PDF

Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I., Hood, R. W., McCullough, M. E., Swyers, J. P., Larson,D. B., & Zinnbauer, B. J. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30, 51-77. PDF

Kilpatrick, S. D., & McCullough, M. E. (1999). Religion and spirituality in rehabilitation psychology. Rehabilitation Psychology, 44, 388-402PDF

McCullough, M. E., Hoyt, W. T., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & Thoresen, C. E. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology, 19, 211-222. PDF (Here's Sloan and Bagiella's letter to the editor based on this piece, and our reply. PDF)

McCullough, M. E. (1999). Research on religion-accommodative counseling: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 92-98. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (1999). Prayer. In W. R. Miller (Ed.), Integrating spirituality into treatment: Resources for practitioners (pp. 85-110). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. PDF

Measuring Religion

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., Berry, J. T., Schmidt, M. M., Berry, J. T., Bursley, K. H., & O’Connor, L. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory-10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84-96. PDF

Miscellaneous

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2013). After a Pair of Self-Control-Intensive Tasks, Sucrose Swishing Improves Subsequent Working Memory Performance. BMC Psychology, 1. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Kelly, D. L. (2014). A trading scheme to reduce false positives. Nature, 508, 319. PDF 

Pedersen, E. J., Forster, D. E., & McCullough, M. E. (in press). Life history, code of honor, and emotional responses to inequality in an economic game. EmotionPDF

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2013). Is Ego Depletion too Incredible? Evidence for the Overestimation of the Depletion Effect. Behavioral and brain sciences, 36, 683-684. PDF

McCullough, M. E., Churchland, P. S., & Mendez, A. J. (2013). Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: Can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 1485-1492. PDF

McCullough, M. E., & Pedersen, E. J. (2013). The evolution of generosity: How natural selection builds devices for benefit-delivery. Social Research, 80, 387-410. PDF