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Identity Profiles in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Family Influences
Summary: This study examined the connection between LGB identity development and parental support and rejection. Parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support from families were found to be significant factors in the identity development of LGB youth. Parental rejection, then, in part accounts for identity struggles in LGB youth, while sexuality-specific social support from families in part accounts for identity affirmation.
Citation: Bregman, H. R., Malik, N. M., Page, M. J. L., Makynen, E., & Lindahl, K. M. (2013). Identity profiles in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: The role of family influences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 417-430.
Link: [Abstract]

Sexuality Related Social Support Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth
Summary: From where do LGB youth receive social support both related to their sexuality and also not related to their sexuality? This study found that family and heterosexual friends provided more support for stress unrelated to sexuality than related to sexuality, while sexuality minority friends provided the most sexuality support for LGB youth. Importantly, it was also found that higher levels of sexuality support related to decreased emotional distress and buffered against the negative effects of sexuality stress on emotional distress.
Citation: Doty, N., Willoughby, B. B., Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (2010). Sexuality related social support among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of Youth And Adolescence, 39(10), 1134-1147.
Link: [Abstract]

Victimization, Family Rejection, and Outcomes of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Young People: The Role of Negative GLB Identity
Summary: GLB youth face stressors related to their sexuality, of which victimization and family rejection of sexual orientation are particularly salient. These stressors, furthermore, have been linked to mental health outcomes of GLB youth. This study examined negative GLB identity and its connection to this relationship between stressors and outcome. It was found that negative GLB identity played a role in the pathway between youths' victimization and family rejection experiences and youths' internalizing problems, like depression, worry, or fear. Negative GLB identity did not, on the other hand, play a role in the pathway between stressors and health risk behaviors, like substance use or smoking.
Citation: Willoughby, B. B., Doty, N. D., & Malik, N. M. (2010). Victimization, family rejection, and outcomes of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people: The role of negative GLB identity. Journal Of GLBT Family Studies, 6(4), 403-424.
Link: [Abstract]

The Role of Religion and Other Stressors in Sexual Identity and Mental Health among LGB Youth
Summary: This study examined religious and sexual identity conflict and gay-related stress and how they are related to difficulty with LGB identity formation and mental health outcomes. LGB identity difficulty fully accounted for both the relationship between religious/sexual identity conflict and mental health outcomes and also gay-related stress and mental health outcomes.
Citation: Page, M. J. L., Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (in press). The role of religion and other stressors in sexual identity and mental health among LGB youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence.
Link: [Abstract]

Parental Reactions to Their Child's Sexual Orientation Disclosure: A Family Stress Perspective
Summary: This review looked at the existing literature on parental reactions to their child's sexual orientation disclosure. It was found that parental reactions may depend on the availability of family-based resources to manage stress, the meaning attributed to the stressful event, and the pileup of co-occurring stressors taxing a family's coping resources. Furthermore, LGB youth well-being is also linked to parental reactions. High levels of distress in young gay men, for example, was related to perceived rejection from family members.
Citation: Willoughby, B. B., Doty, N. D., & Malik, N. M. (2008). Parental reactions to their child's sexual orientation disclosure: A family stress perspective. Parenting: Science And Practice, 8(1), 70-91.
Link: [Abstract]

Peer Crowd Affiliations of Adult Gay Men: Linkages With Health Risk Behaviors
Summary: What role do the social networks of adult gay men play in the promotion and prevention of health risk? This study found that identifying with certain peer crowds, such as Circuit Partiers, Bears, Muscle Boys, Granolas, and Goths, was related to adverse health behaviors. Other peer crowds, such as Suburbans, Professionals, Twinks, and Activists, were low-risk.
Citation: Willoughby, B. B., Lai, B. S., Doty, N. D., Mackey, E. R., & Malik, N. M. (2008). Peer crowd affiliations of adult gay men: Linkages with health risk behaviors. Psychology Of Men & Masculinity, 9(4), 235-247.
Link: [Abstract]

Parental Reactions to Their Sons' Sexual Orientation Disclosures: The Roles of Family Cohesion, Adaptability, and Parenting Style
Summary: Are family dynamics before youth sexual orientation disclosure associated with parental reactions to their sons' coming out episodes? Results from this study indicated that gay men reporting to be from cohesive, adaptable, and authoritative families prior to their coming out perceived their parents' reactions as less negative compared with gay men reporting to be from disconnected, rigid, and authoritarian families.
Citation: Willoughby, B. B., Malik, N. M., & Lindahl, K. M. (2006). Parental reactions to their sons' sexual orientation disclosures: The roles of family cohesion, adaptability, and parenting style. Psychology Of Men & Masculinity, 7(1), 14-26.
Link: [Abstract]

University of Miami Department of Psychology ComingOut