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Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Biennial Meeting April 18-20, 2013, Seattle, WA

Ethnicity Differences in Parent Reactions to Youth Sexual Minority Identity
Summary: This study examined parental rejection of LGB youths' sexual orientation and its association with ethnicity. Results suggest that White LGB youth experience less parent rejection than Hispanic and Black youth at the time of coming out, from both youth and parent perspectives. Furthermore, while parent rejection seems to decrease over time for all ethnic groups, differences between ethnic groups are maintained.
Citation: Page, M.J.L., Lam, H., Malik, N.M., & Lindahl, K.M. (2013, April). Ethnicity differences in parent reactions to youth sexual minority identity. Poster presented at 2013 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. Seattle, Washington.

Sexual Orientation Change Among Sexual Minority Youth Over 18 Months
Summary: How do changes in sexual identity affect LGB youths' sense of identity? This study found that that LGB youth who changed their identity label over the past 18 months had significantly greater levels of identity confusion than youth who retained their same sexual identity. Furthermore, bisexual youth had higher ratings of identity confusion than gay youth.
Citation: Lam, H., Bregman, H.R., Page, M.J.L., Malik, N.M., & Lindahl, K.M. (2013, April). Sexual orientation change among sexual minority youth over 18 months. Poster presented at 2013 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. Seattle, Washington.


Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) Annual Convention November 15-18, 2012, Baltimore, MD

How Parental Coping Strategies Affect Sexual Minority Youth's Feelings of Acceptance after "Coming Out"
Summary: This study examined strategies that parents use to cope with stress following the "coming out" of their child, and which strategies were associated with parental acceptance. Results indicated that youth's perception of parental acceptance was associated with greater use of emotional support and less use of religious coping and active coping.
Citation: Brent, AD, Bregman, HR, Lindahl, KM, Page, MJL, & Malik, N. How parental coping strategies affect sexual minority youth's feelings of acceptance after "coming out." Poster presented at the 2012 Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. Baltimore, MD.


American Psychological Association (APA) Annual Conference August 4, 2012, Orlando, FL

Understanding Youth and Parent Perceptions of Parental Reactions After Coming Out
Summary: In this study, we examine differences in youth and parent perceptions of how parents feel about their child's sexuality after coming out. Results indicated that youth and parents both perceive parents' feelings to be more accepting over time. Some differences in specific opinions were found.
Citation: Lam, H, Bregman, HR, Page, MJL, Lindahl, KM, & Malik, NM. (2012, August). Understanding youth and parent perceptions of parental reactions after coming out. To be presented at a paper symposium at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Orlando, FL.

Parent Rejection, Family Functioning, and Youth Adjustment in LGB Youth: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model
Summary: This study used innovative statistical model to look at direct and cross-over effects of parent rejection on youth functioning from both youth and parent report. Results indicated that parent rejection was linked with youth mental health from both reports, and these relationships were explained in part by balanced family functioning.
Citation: Bregman, HR, Page, MJL, Lam, H, Lindahl, KM, & Malik, NM. (2012, August). Parent rejection, family functioning, and youth adjustment in LGB youth: An actor-partner interdependence model. To be presented at a paper symposium at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Orlando, FL.

Comparing "Outness" among LGB Youth and their Parents
Summary: This study examined the degree to which youth are "out" about their sexual orientation, as well as the degree to which parents are out about their child's sexuality. Results indicated that youth were on average more out than parents. Further, family sexuality support, youth sexual orientation visibility, and parental use of acceptance coping appear to be important for youth and parent outness.
Citation: Page, MJL, Lam, H, Bregman, HR, Malik, NM, & Lindahl, KM. (2012, August). Comparing "outness" among LGB youth and their parents. To be presented at a paper symposium at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Orlando, FL.


Society for Research on Adolescence (SRA) 14th Biennial Meeting March 8-10, 2012, Vancouver, BC Canada

Predictors of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Profiles
Summary: A latent profile analysis was conducted on a measure of LGB identity, and two profiles emerged: a identity-affirmed profile and an identity-struggling profile. Having greater "outness" and more parental acceptance predicted being in the identity-affirmed profile, and these youth had fewer mental health problems and better personal adjustment.
Citation: Bregman, H. R., Page, M. J. L., Lindahl, K. M. , & Malik, N. M. (2012, March) Predictors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual identity profiles. Presented at paper symposium at the 2012 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence. Vancouver, Canada.

Sexual Identity Difficulty in LGB Youth: Religious Conflict, Stress, and Mental Health Outcomes
Summary: A mediational model was presented that examines the links between religious and other gay-related stressors to negative sexual identity, and mental health outcomes in turn, for a sample of LGB youth. The final model indicated that the links between both types of stressors and mental health was fully explained by having a negative sexual identity.
Citation: Page, M. J. L. , Bregman, H. R. , Lindahl, K. M. , & Malik, N. M. (2012, March) Sexual identity difficulty in LGB youth: Religious conflict, stress, and mental health outcomes. Presented at paper symposium at the 2012 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence. Vancouver, Canada.

Stressors and Victimization in Sexual Minority Youth: Parenting as a Buffer
Summary: This study examines sexual orientation differences in exposure to stress and victimization, and their links to psychological adjustment, and parent support, among a sample of LBG youth. Lesbians and bisexual youth reported more gay-related stressors than did gay youth. Cyber-bullying was the sole predictor of psychological well-being for gay and bisexual youth, while a combination of peer aggression and gay-specific stressors best predicted psychological health for lesbian youth. Parental acceptance of youth sexual orientation fully explained the relationship between overt peer aggression and personal adjustment.
Citation: Lindahl, K. M. , Malik, N. M. , Bregman, H. R. , & Page, M. J. L. (2012, March). Stressors and victimization in sexual minority youth: Parenting as a buffer. Presented at paper symposium at the 2012 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence. Vancouver, Canada.


American Psychological Association (APA) Annual Conference August 4, 2011, Washington D.C.

Parental Acceptance and Family Functioning in Families of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth
Summary: Some families have difficulty supporting their child after their child "comes out" to parents. However, families that experience unity and closeness are more likely to be accepting of their child's lesbian, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation. Families that are rigid and inflexible are likely to be less supportive of their child's sexual orientation.
Citation: Bregman, H.R., Page, M.J.L., Lindahl, K.M., & Malik, N.M. (2011, August). Parental acceptance and family functioning in families of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Poster presented at 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC.

Religious Conflict, Gay-Related Stress, and Sexual Identity Difficulty in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth
Summary: We found that higher levels of conflict between religious identity and sexual identity when youth realized they were LGB were linked with trouble accepting sexual identity. Higher ratings of stress related to being gay/bisexual were also related to trouble accepting sexual identity.
Citation: Page, M.J.L., Bregman, H.R., Malk, N.M., Lindahl, K.M. (2011, August). Religious conflict, gay-related stress, and sexual identity difficulty in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Poster presented at 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC.

Family Reactions, Outness, & Identity: Testing a Model of Psychological Functioning in LGB Adolescents and Young Adults
Summary: Many studies suggest that youth who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB) are more likely than their heterosexual peers to experience a variety of psychological concerns such as depression and anxiety. Some of the reasons for why LGB youth might be at risk for mental health difficulties were examined in this presentation, including negative reactions from family members, discomfort with disclosing LGB identity to others, and have a negative sense of oneself as an LGB person. We found that rejection from family members predicted youths being more reluctant to "come out" others. Being more "closeted," in turn, predicted a negative sense of identity, which was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. This presentation highlights the critical role of family support, especially from parents, for LGB youth, and it also suggests that the more comfortable LGB youth are with themselves, the less risk they have for psychological maladjustment."
Citation: Lindahl, K.M., Bregman, H.R., Page, M.J.L., Willoughby, B., Doty, N., & Malik, N.M. (2011, August). Family reactions, outness, and identity: Testing a model of psychological functioning in LGB adolescents and young adults. Poster presented at 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC.


Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) Annual Convention November 18-21, 2010, San Francisco, CA

The Roles of Gay-related Stressors, Social Support, and "Outness" in Identity Development of LGB Adolescents and Young Adults
Summary: LGB adolescents and young adults perceive their sexual identity differently. This study looked at different factors that are associated with this perception and found that higher gay-related stress, higher violence/harassment, and less "outness" predicted higher levels of negative views of LGB identity. Upon closer examination of these factors, this study also concluded that being more closeted and having more negative reactions from family members to sexual orientation disclosure appear to be more directly associated with risk for negative self-identity for LGB youth than harassment, being misunderstood or other social/ community stressors.
Citation: Lindahl, K.M., Doty, M., Willoughby, B.L.B., Lindahl, K.M. (2010, November). The roles of gay-related stressors, social support, and "outness" in identity development of LGB adolescents and young adults. Poster presented at the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, San Francisco, CA.


Society for Research on Adolescence (SRA) 13th Biennial Meeting March 11-13, 2010, Philadelphia, PA

Parental Rejection of Adolescent Same-Sex Attractions: Self-Loathing as a Mediator of Youth Outcome
Summary: How is parental rejection related to LGB youth outcomes? This study found, firstly, that higher levels of maternal rejection were related to higher levels of internalizing problems, substance use problems severity, and cigarette use. Self-loathing was found, secondly, to be involved in this relationship in that higher levels of maternal rejection led to higher levels of self-loathing that, in turn, led to higher levels of internalizing problems.
Citation: Willoughby, B.L.B., Doty, N.D., Lindahl, K.M., & Malik, N.M. (2010, March). Parental rejection of adolescent same-sex attractions: Self-loathing as a mediator of youth outcome. Paper presented at Society for Research in Adolescence, Philadelphia, PA.

An Examination of the Coming Out Process in LGB Adolescents and Young Adults
Summary: This study looked at different sexual minority groups (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) and their relationship to the coming out process. It was found that bisexual youth disclosed later, were less out to their parents and to others and reported higher negative LGB identity than did lesbians or gay men. Overall, higher levels of self-disclosure were associated with less negative LGB identity.
Citation: Lindahl, K.M., Doty, N., Willoughby, B., & Malik, N.M. (2010 March). An examination of the coming out process in LGB adolescents and young adults. Paper presented at Society for Research in Adolescence, Philadelphia, PA.


Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) Annual Convention November 19-22, 2009, New York City, NY

Victimization, self-functioning, and adaptability in same sex attracted youth: Exploring resilience
Summary: What factors promote resilience in LGB youth? This study specifically examined sexuality-related stress, internalized homonegativity, and self-worth in relationships with family and friends as predictors of psychological and adaptive functioning. Relational self-worth did not serve as a resilience factor. Family relational self-worth, however, was found to reduce the relationship between experienced violence/harassment and internalized stigma and interpersonal relations
Citation: Malik, N.M., Willoughby, B.L.B., Doty, N.D., & Lindahl, K.M. (2009, November). Victimization, self-functioning, and adaptability in same sex attracted youth: Exploring resilience. Poster presented at the 43rd annual convention for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY.


University of Miami Department of Psychology ComingOut